OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass I & II

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OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass I & II

#1

Post by DaveK » Mon Nov 02, 2020 10:36 pm

MAP AND COMPASS

Preview for 11/12/20

There was a lot of material to cover in just one net, so we decided to carry the topic forward for a second session, on November 12, 2020.

Original Posts

This week we examine one of the most important outdoor skills - how to use a map and compass. Our guest speaker will be Rick Schirmer, KK6CTT. Ricks experience in the military and in the outdoors, will make for a great net. Don't miss it!!!
DaveK
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Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice.
Moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.

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lrsrngr
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Re: OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass

#2

Post by lrsrngr » Mon Nov 02, 2020 11:31 pm

SHOOTING SHACK PART I:

"Don't come a-knockin' if this neighborhood's a-rockin'"

Preparedness. Reading the signs and striving to be one step ahead of what the signs point to.

Here's an example taken from someone I work with in the EMCOMM world:

So last night was a little strange. We had a power outage in our housing tract. Initially, we thought ANTIFA struck the local power grid. Later we discovered a vehicle took out a local power pole. I pulled out our generator and fired it up. So for two-hours, I was the only household in our neighborhood with electricity. What do you think happened? That's right, the neighbors were all huddled around our house. Gina (my wife) served everyone homemade baked chicken dinners with a slice of hot apple pie. Although an inconvenience, we were glad the neighbors felt comfortable and at ease. Luckily my neighbors and I had several discussions about power outages, disaster preparedness, and formed a Neighborhood Watch group for our block. Most of the neighbors obtained a radio for the Solera Emergency Communications System. They were all well informed of the power outage and the progress with repairs. Each of my neighbors knew to rally at my house (since I had a generator, emergency supplies, and connections to area public safety organizations). We all helped each other with small needs like lighting equipment (flashlights & lanterns), cellphone charging, hot meals, refreshments, and general calming of the nerves. Lessons learned: my neighbors will better prepare themselves; those neighbors without Solera radios will contact the Solera Radio Club www.soleraradio.com and others will be researching the benefits of being involved with CERT. www.solera-cert.info

Transfer switch for your portable generator: https://generatorgrid.com/blog/transfer ... 4KCeustiRA

201105, Generator 01.jpg
Stuff happens, are you prepared?
201105, Generator 01.jpg (392.25 KiB) Viewed 490 times

The same should be blatantly apparent for firearm enthusiasts as well. We continue to see what is trending but we have not worked up a plan for target ammo verses working ammo. We have not helped new shooters join the "responsible owner" ranks because many do not have a father/mother/grandfather/grandmother/uncle/aunt who has been there to "learn 'em..." Okay, instruct them. All the things that we consider important has often been relegated to someone else's responsibility. So during this time when range time is limited, work on your home security plan, training within your circle of trust and helping those who really are trying to put their best foot forward concerning responsible firearm ownership. While the ammunition supply chain plays catch up, seek out a place where you can make a difference in your plan and those of others as well.

Old School: How to Read a Compass https://www.nrafamily.org/articles/2018 ... a-compass/

Who'd of thought being a Boy Scout would last a lifetime!

SHOOTING SHACK PART II (11/12/20):

Alternatives to the modern firearm.

There are black powders solutions that have really taken off in technology in the past couple of decades as well as strung "shooting" implements like the crossbow and bow solutions but there is one heavy hitter that really made a difference in our Nation's history and featured here tonight.

DR Robert Beeman, a distinguished university professor, first chairman of San Francisco State University’s Department of Marine Biology. Was a longtime fan of air rifles from youth and is the namesake of the Beeman Precision Airgun company. His fascination with air guns led him to buy a French made Girandoni air rifle that was in good repair for its age its exact prominence unknown; until...

In 2004, DR Beeman was contacted by Ernie Cowan, a master gunsmith who wanted to use the Girandoni rifle to duplicate and place in his collection of weaponry. Cowan and a fellow collaborator, Rick Keller, carefully disassembled the rifle and found overwhelming evidence this rifle was of significant historical prominence. Keller and historian Mike Carrick found evidence of repairs made to the rifle that matched the journal entries from the Lewis and Clark expedition. The proof provided evidence that DR Beeman's Girandoni rifle was "The Girandoni" rifle that may have been ultimately responsible for the success of the expedition because without this rifle and its attributes the Lewis and Clark Expedition may have starved or come to great harm when parlaying with Native American tribes along their route. The rifle proved to be a great game meat harvester and passively provided good reason for tribesman not to attack the expedition.

"Perhaps the most significant repair they discovered was a replaced mainspring. Lewis noted exactly such a repair in his June 10, 1805, journal entry: “[Expedition gunsmith John] Shields removed the main Spring of my air gun.” The repair was made with a farrier’s file ordinarily used to trim horses’ hooves. Other repairs included a new forward pin lug, middle thimble, and scarph joint in the rifle’s forearm, which replaced European walnut with good American walnut." https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/ ... air-rifle/

DR Beeman was the verifiable, proud owner of the famous Lewis and Clark Girandoni. This rifle insured the successful passage of the expedition into the West where its members lived to tell their tale and prompt further expansion into the West.

Beeman’s Girandoni has been extensively studied and field tested repeatedly to ascertain its capabilities. Without a doubt it is a stunning instrument. To spare the original repeated wear-and-tear, four exact copies of the weapon have been produced by Cowan and Keller. Recognizing its historical significance, Beeman donated the original weapon to the permanent collection of the U.S. Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. It is now on loan to and on special display at the Pentagon. Despite great scientific and technical advances in weaponry, few single weapons can rival the Girandoni for the peaceful promotion of American interests. That lack of violence, in itself, makes the Girardoni of the Lewis and Clark expedition a truly singular western weapon indeed. https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/ ... air-rifle/

Man did not solely survive on gun powder but understanding his environment and bringing to the experience the right tool for the job he has persevered. I present this Shooting Shack exclusive, the Girandoni air rifle!

http://www.nramuseum.org/guns/the-galle ... clark.aspx

Girandoni Air Rifle 1024 01.jpg
This 22-shot repeating air rifle is an original Girardoni military pattern rifle of the type used on the Lewis & Clark Expedition. It is a butt reservoir piece with a bore size of .462 caliber. Similar pieces were supplied by Bartolomeo Girardoni to the Austrian army circa 1780. As originally issued, each Girardoni air rifle had three detachable air reservoirs, each requiring about 1,500 strokes of a pump to completely pressurize the reservoir. Once filled to operating pressure (about 800 psi) the air rifle could fire up to 70 shots before the reservoir required replacing. A metal tube on the side of the barrel held up to 22 lead balls that could be fed one at a time to the firing chamber by a simple sideways push of a plunger. At a distance of 50 feet, this rifle is capable of placing ten shots into a group the size of a quarter.

http://www.nramuseum.org/guns/the-galleries/a-prospering-new-republic-1780-to-1860/case-8-romance-of-the-long-rifle/girardoni-air-rifle-as-used-by-lewis-and-clark.aspx

Loaned by Michael F. Carrick
Girandoni Air Rifle 1024 01.jpg (419.85 KiB) Viewed 244 times
Last edited by lrsrngr on Thu Nov 12, 2020 8:52 pm, edited 9 times in total.
[b]HUA[/b] or "Hooah!" = Heard Understood & Acknowledged. In context: "Roger that sir, HUA!"

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Re: OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass

#3

Post by lrsrngr » Mon Nov 02, 2020 11:32 pm

Map and Compass: Equipment Familiarization, Care and Serviceability:

What are you looking to accomplish? What defines success? Does the equipment, your experience and knowledge for a successful deployment meet your expectations? If the nexus of these questions does not give you a resounding "I can do this and not risk becoming a casualty, lost or worse, place myself in a survival situation that I cannot recover from...for example, death." If you can reduce and mitigate your risks to a manageable level then continue but if you cannot dial back the risks then stop, do not pass go, return to base, realizing earlier is better than late, too late.

NOTE: This is not a discussion of field expedient methods for finding direction but if it were there are several ways to do this and I consider them valuable skills to understand and be able to fall back on.

CARE: https://classroom.synonym.com/how-to-ca ... 75093.html
  • The magnetic compass has been around for hundreds of years. Historically, sailors found compasses particularly useful at night when clouds blocked the stars. Magnetic compasses are still popular today and are used by hikers and sailors. Proper care will keep a compass functioning for many years.
  • Store a magnetic compass away from computers and other electrical devices that can generate magnetic fields. Exposure to magnetic fields can damage a compass.
  • Keep a magnetic compass away from heaters and do not store in a hot place such as a car. Heat can damage the inner workings of a magnetic compass, resulting in poor performance.
  • Carry a magnetic compass so it does not come in contact with cell phones or pocket radios. Store the cell phone or radio in an adjacent pocket or a pocket in a jacket. The speakers in cell phones and other devices can demagnetize the needle on the compass.
  • Avoid dropping or bumping the compass on a hard surface. Dropping or bumping the compass may damage it and impair its ability to function correctly.
201105, Defective Compass 01.jpg
Exam your compass for bubbles, binding of the needle, cracks and any general issues that will cause this precision instrument to not function as intended.
201105, Defective Compass 01.jpg (402.9 KiB) Viewed 430 times

Checking the accuracy of your compass:
  • Nothing like shooting an azimuth to a known point and checking it against mapping programs or your map. If you have several compasses, find a nonferrous post and put the edge of your compass along this straight edge and look for variances between your repertoire of equipment.
Out of the chute you need to understand your equipment and make sure you have the right equipment for the job. Let's talk about making the right equipment choice, the compass and care of equipment:

There are many forms of compasses but we will focus on the most commonly used in the field for general navigation with a heavy focus on the hiking or orienteering aspect.

o Base Plate compass: A magnetic compass that is set into a clear base that lends itself to easily view a map through the base as different features of the compass are being used in conjunction with a map. "Sighing" on distant objects is not easily done with this style compass like the sighting and lensatic compasses.

o Sighting compass: A magnetic compass that often relies on a mirror to line up both the bearing and a distant object that is on course and used as a reference point to move to.

o Lensatic compass: A magnetic compass that can also be called a military or "military style" compass that relies heavily on "sighting" in on a distant object for reference.

201101, Compass Choices Combined Labeled 1600 01.jpg
Base, Sighting and Lensatic or Military Compasses with labels.
201101, Compass Choices Combined Labeled 1600 01.jpg (781.92 KiB) Viewed 538 times
201105, Low Light 1024 04_Detail.jpg
An example of the "low light" qualities of the big three with phosphorescent vs. tritium.
201105, Low Light 1024 04_Detail.jpg (70.37 KiB) Viewed 534 times
NOTE: Unfair advantage to the phosphorescent compasses due to the age of my military compass, 1984.

o Secondary/Alternative tools include but are not limited to phone (app), wristwatch, GPS and the always present "gimmick" formats. These tools can and should be carried as an alternative but I would hesitate to say I would consider them my primary navigation tool.

201105, Alternatives Combined 1024 01.jpg
Secondary means of maintaining an azimuth/bearing.
201105, Alternatives Combined 1024 01.jpg (327.62 KiB) Viewed 536 times

Honorable Mention for the confident and experienced navigator: Suunto M9 Wrist Compass (the exception to the rule)

201105, Suunto Wrist Labeled 1600 01.jpg
This is the only "secondary" compass I would elevate to "primary" where the technical aspects of navigation are "intermediate" or "low."
201105, Suunto Wrist Labeled 1600 01.jpg (650.54 KiB) Viewed 536 times

The map, protractor and management of resources:

o Maps:

-Topographic Maps: Digital or Paper?
  • The USGS (https://viewer.nationalmap.gov/basic/) and National Geographic (https://www.natgeomaps.com/trail-maps/pdf-quads) sites are where I go habitually for digital maps. I have not ordered paper maps off line but I have been pretty successful with my gazetteer and home printed maps in black and white from home. I do not see myself buying a lot of pre-printed maps because I use downloaded maps or I bought them from local vendors when they were more readily available. This is a disadvantage for most who are newer to reading a map and suggest a paper map over any other kind of map you might use (having all the colors printed on quality paper makes a big difference). A larger scale map, greater than 1:50,000 is good for generalized navigation but smaller than or equal to 1:50,000 becomes ideal for most general hiking and driving opportunities. For more technical hikes, of course, the 1:24,000 forestry maps are of favorable accuracy and very helpful.
  • I will admit, this leaves a lot in the discussion for interpretation for "where to get maps" and since I am not the subject matter expert here I will defer that to another member or participant. Hopefully the bulk of the discussion will help you, once you get a paper map in your hands, to become much more effective when armed with a map and compass.
201105, Map and Tools 1024 01.JPG
There are several different kinds of maps and there are tools that make working with maps a lot easier.
201105, Map and Tools 1024 01.JPG (304.53 KiB) Viewed 527 times
201105, Map and Tools 1024 02.JPG
Maps usually contain marginal data that is critical to successful planning and working through the field work where boots met the trail.
201105, Map and Tools 1024 02.JPG (313.24 KiB) Viewed 527 times

o Protractor and Resources:
There are other tools that make map work a little easier. A protractor to determine azimuth on the map (don't forget to account for both the map datum and the declination). A compass to draw circles or measure distances. A ruler to draw lines and also measure distances. Then there is the need to have your maps on hand when you need them and also a means to protect the maps when taking them to the field. Maps made from water proofed materials are really durable, the National Geographic maps are a great example. Map cases can be made and found for paper maps and the real important part of map management is understanding map folding is an art that needs to leave enough to work with while enough excess that allows for you to see the big picture. Cutting a map down, especially deleting the marginal information should be avoided. The marginal information is critical if not during the current trip, then definitely the next time you pickup the map next time.

A good, soft lead, thin (mehcanical?) pencil is great for paper map marking and a soft gummy eraser will definitely help to clear unwanted marks. Additionally, if using a laminated map, map case or a map board alcohol markers with fine, medium at best, tips should be used and having prepacked alcohol wipes you rotate out of your medical kits to wipe away marks when you are done is a great way to "mark away" and then clean up when done.

NOTE: A true example of the potential of not being able to depend on your GPS when the government works on an exercise like this. Most ground-bound enthusiasts would not know about this advisory before they head out to the field.

201112-19, GPS Flight Warning 01.jpg
This is exactly why you have to be very careful to become solely dependent on GPS systems.
201112-19, GPS Flight Warning 01.jpg (155.12 KiB) Viewed 297 times
201112-19, GPS Flight Warning 02.jpg
Effected area, 11/09-11/12/20.
201112-19, GPS Flight Warning 02.jpg (334.88 KiB) Viewed 297 times
Last edited by lrsrngr on Tue Nov 10, 2020 12:40 am, edited 33 times in total.
[b]HUA[/b] or "Hooah!" = Heard Understood & Acknowledged. In context: "Roger that sir, HUA!"

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Re: OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass

#4

Post by lrsrngr » Mon Nov 02, 2020 11:39 pm

Reference Material, FM 3-25.26 Map Reading and Land Navigation: https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-25-26.pdf

Marginal Information (page 3-1):
  • Sheet Name (examples are from the Keller Peak map sheets below)
  • Adjoining Sheets (map sheets that can be found in the four cardinal directions)
  • Declination Diagram (the difference between true, grid and magnetic north)
  • Bar Scales (provide units of measure and may include yards, meters and miles)
  • Contour Interval (gives distance between contour lines w/specific attention to feet/meters)
  • Map Datum (can cause coordinates to be off from one datum to the next)
  • Legend (information concerning special markings on the map)
  • Scale (ID which devices or compasses will be needed to accurately match the map used)
201105, Marginal Information 1600 01.jpg
An example of marginal information.
201105, Marginal Information 1600 01.jpg (931.49 KiB) Viewed 520 times

Colors used on a military map will often follow the same meaning on other maps (page 3-6)
  • Black. Black indicates cultural (man-made) features such as buildings and roads, surveyed spot elevations, and all labels.
  • Red-Brown. The colors red and brown are combined to identify cultural features, all relief features, nonsurveyed spot elevations, and elevation such as contour lines on red-light readable maps.
  • Blue. Blue identifies hydrography or water features such as lakes, swamps, rivers, and drainage.
  • Green. Green identifies vegetation with military significance such as woods, orchards, and vineyards.
  • Brown. Brown identifies all relief features and elevation such as contours on older edition maps and cultivated land on red-light readable maps,
  • Red. Red classifies cultural features, such as populated areas, main roads, and boundaries, on older maps.
  • Other. Occasionally, other colors may be used to show special information. These are indicated in the marginal information as a rule.
NOTE: For you tacticians out there who practice light discipline or studying things under night vision devices (NVD); before you go to the field, check to see if you can read your map with a red lens light and you might notice many of the red and sometimes red-brown features will disappear under a red light source. Also, you will find you are in another world looking at a map under NVDs. Here's where your "moonlight" headlamp/flashlight feature comes in handy.

USGS and National Geographic examples (a lot is lost in translation with the downgrade of a large file brought down to a presentable size below):

201105, Keller Peak USGS NatGeo 1600 01.jpg
Full size USGS map on the left and the overview National Geographic map on the right.
201105, Keller Peak USGS NatGeo 1600 01.jpg (1.36 MiB) Viewed 521 times

You can see there is quite a difference between the two in color and size. The NatGeo maps are easier to manage on a regular home PC setup and printer. The NatGeop map is saved on five pages. The 1st is the overview (depicted above) and explanation of the four quadrants, on subsequent pages, while the USGS map is the whole map in one PDF, one page. Most people do not have the printing capability to reproduce the entire USGS map.

Let's dial in and take a look at similar areas within the two maps presented:

201105, Keller Peak USGS NatGeo 1600 02.jpg
Again, we're looking at the USGS map on the left and the NatGeo map on the right. Clearly two very different looking maps of the same area (not necessarily the same scale at this point).
201105, Keller Peak USGS NatGeo 1600 02.jpg (521.2 KiB) Viewed 521 times
201105, Keller Peak USGS NatGeo 1600 03.jpg
And now, the differences between the two maps is really visible and may be significant enough to alter a navigation plan.
201105, Keller Peak USGS NatGeo 1600 03.jpg (1.16 MiB) Viewed 521 times
201105, Keller Peak USGS NatGeo 1600 04.jpg
Compare the maps to satellite imagery and it all helps to create a mental picture of the area you may never have visited.
201105, Keller Peak USGS NatGeo 1600 04.jpg (1.81 MiB) Viewed 520 times
Last edited by lrsrngr on Wed Nov 04, 2020 4:08 pm, edited 8 times in total.
[b]HUA[/b] or "Hooah!" = Heard Understood & Acknowledged. In context: "Roger that sir, HUA!"

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Re: OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass

#5

Post by lrsrngr » Mon Nov 02, 2020 11:39 pm

Compass: Declination, declination, declination...!

Credit to Bonnie K6BNE for this group and another rabbit hole of videos to watch from Columbia River Orienteering: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoaYxG ... VVEGDWs-6g

Here we go...What is "Declination?" Let's let USGS fill-in the part about the three norths:
https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/what-do-diffe ... e_products
  • True north, also called geodetic north or geographic north, is the direction of the line of longitude that bisects the quadrangle. All longitude lines converge to points at the north and south poles. The star symbol in the diagram indicates true north.
  • Magnetic north (MN) shows the direction a magnetic compass would point at the time the map was published. The direction of magnetic north varies both with position on the earth's surface and over time, so magnetic declination values on old maps may no longer be accurate. Magnetic declination values shown on current maps are obtained from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center.
  • Grid north (GN) is the direction of a plane grid system, usually the grid associated with the map projection. On current US Topo maps the projection is Transverse Mercator, and the plane grid is Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). All US Topo maps have a 1,000-meter UTM grid included on the map, and the angle at which this grid meets the map projection line visually shows the difference between true and grid north. Historical maps might relate grid north to other grid systems. The difference between true north and grid north is an inherent effect of transforming the earth's spherical surface to a plane surface. The size of this difference for a particular map depends on the projection and the map location relative to the projection origin.
Here is a diagram that helps put a visual on the magnetic field that influences the declination from NOAA:
https://maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/hist ... clination/
  • Magnetic declination is an important concept for accurate navigation. A compass will always point along the lines of magnetic force (which converge on what are called the magnetic poles). The angle between the direction of force and the direction of the geographic north pole is called the declination. If a compass at your location is pointing to the right of true north, declination is positive or east, and if it points to the left of true north, declination is negative or west. As one moves across the surface of the globe, lines of constant magnetic declination are called isogonic lines.
  • As the earth's magnetic field varies over time, the positions of the north and south magnetic poles gradually change. The magnetic declination at a given location also changes over time.
  • This map displays historical isogonic lines and magnetic poles calculated for the years 1590-2025.
201105, NOAA Hstorical Magnetic Diagram.jpg
The green dot shows where the magnetic north is now and you can see how the magnetic field has changed over the decades.
201105, NOAA Hstorical Magnetic Diagram.jpg (1.03 MiB) Viewed 513 times

Bottom Line:

With the NOAA magnetic declination calculator I found that the current declination for Riverside, CA is 11° 34' and I placed that into the triangle calculator to prove a point. Calculating a distance and azimuth without accounting for the declination will put the navigator 194 meters off course. To put that into perspective, the target area is 10 soccer fields away, being 11° off from the declination will result in being 2-soccer fields off course (see the diagram). You can see, I hope that planning for the declination variances between map or grid north and magnetic north equals sweat and maybe even tears if you find yourself off course by several soccer fields each leg of your trek.
https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/calcul ... eclination

201105, Triangle Calculator 11 Degrees.jpg
How far off will I be if I plan to travel on an azimuth that is not taking into account the declination for the area I will be operating in?
201105, Triangle Calculator 11 Degrees.jpg (137.34 KiB) Viewed 511 times
201105, Triangle Calculator 11 Degrees Yards.jpg
How far off will I be in yards if a mile is equal to 1,760 yards? 342 yards, almost 3.5 football fields.
201105, Triangle Calculator 11 Degrees Yards.jpg (135.66 KiB) Viewed 501 times

How do you avoid this? Perfect planning leads to peak performance (but, don't get over confident)!

You will need to learn the major and minor terrain features to include how they are depicted on the topo:

Five Major Terrain Features:

201105, Terrain Features Major 01.jpg
"Hill" High ground in four directions.
201105, Terrain Features Major 01.jpg (66.69 KiB) Viewed 506 times
201105, Terrain Features Major 02.jpg
"Valley" High ground on two or three sides.
201105, Terrain Features Major 02.jpg (107.91 KiB) Viewed 506 times
201105, Terrain Features Major 03.jpg
"Saddle" High round on two sides, low ground on two sides.
201105, Terrain Features Major 03.jpg (63.13 KiB) Viewed 506 times
201105, Terrain Features Major 04.jpg
"Ridge" & "Ridgeline" A series of high ground where predominantly there is high ground linked together with hills and saddles.
201105, Terrain Features Major 04.jpg (145.2 KiB) Viewed 506 times
201105, Terrain Features Major 05.jpg
"Depression" Low ground; high ground is in four directions.
201105, Terrain Features Major 05.jpg (100.03 KiB) Viewed 506 times

Three Minor Terrain Features:

201105, Terrain Features Minor 01.jpg
"Draw" Similar to a valley, high ground on three sides, but less pronounced and often sandwiched between spurs.
201105, Terrain Features Minor 01.jpg (92.29 KiB) Viewed 506 times
201105, Terrain Features Minor 02.jpg
"Spur" Similar to the ridge, low ground on three sides, and often part of a larger ridge or hill mass.
201105, Terrain Features Minor 02.jpg (111.82 KiB) Viewed 506 times
201105, Terrain Features Minor 03.jpg
"Cliff" Terrain that is steep and often not easily traversed by vehicle or walking.
201105, Terrain Features Minor 03.jpg (132.04 KiB) Viewed 506 times

Two Supplementary Terrain Features:

201105, Terrain Features Supplementary 01.jpg
"Cuts" Often found where transportation routes are "cut" through to avoid going around or tunneling through.
"Fills" Again, usually associated with transportation routes where high banks were filled in to the left and right of the route to build up the travel bed.
201105, Terrain Features Supplementary 01.jpg (216.45 KiB) Viewed 506 times

There will be a test posted just before the net.
Last edited by lrsrngr on Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:44 pm, edited 11 times in total.
[b]HUA[/b] or "Hooah!" = Heard Understood & Acknowledged. In context: "Roger that sir, HUA!"

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Re: OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass

#6

Post by lrsrngr » Mon Nov 02, 2020 11:42 pm

Techniques and Considerations:

Personal experience has put me on target to complete tasks and meet time hacks that were part of an outing or two. Knowing your pace count, how to plan routes, write/draw out a plan for family members, pull permits and still have fun. I have found the pre-planning phase helps to make everything else go smoothly but to do this you have to work at it and keep "polished."

Things that have streamlined the process:
  • Know my pace count and understand how to adjust my pace based on the terrain and vegetation.
  • Experience has helped to provide realistic planning measure when it comes to, "How many kilometres or miles/hour I can count on doing so that I have realistic navigation legs.
  • Additionally to the above, how much weight is being carried and logistically what will be the difference between the full load out and the lighter load coming back (water/food).
  • Use all magnetic settings on any variables I might have from satellite imagery, to GPS point plugging and any other variables that might come up. Always trying to be aware of the GM (grid-magnetic) angle and how it might affect any or all of the planning.
  • Moonrise, moonset, sunrise, sunset. Weather and light data, it all plays into the plan.
  • Conditions of the trail and blogs that support the plan or detract from what you believe to be true.
Planning:
  • I avoid dealing with declination by checking my route via satellite imagery and plan my "legs" via Google Earth that runs on the World Geodetic System (WGS) 84 the same as most newer mapping datum (while North American Datum (NAD) 27 and 83 show up from time to time). This coincides with my GPS settings as well.
  • Critical points are "plugged" into my GPS. "Plugging" is an old term garnered from early experiences with GPS in the Army. For whatever reason, they referred to putting in coordinates as "plugged-in." Plotting and plugging, plotting and plugging.
  • I also use the following techniques that take the "sterile" planning one step further in keeping things flowing by using the terrain and man made features part of your control plan. These include:
  • o "Handrails" Using linear items on the ground just like you would a "handrail" on a walkway or staircase.
  • o "Backstops" Used as a place to limit movement. A way to visually know we have traveled too far. Time to stop and check your navigation.
  • o "Baselines" "Turning Base" as in flying using it to turn a final turn before lining up and coming into the final destination.
  • o "Aiming Off" or "Off-Setting" If you are going to a location where, when it spits you out at your "backstop" you might not know whether you are left of right of your location you force your navigation to take you to the right or left of the final point and knowing you need to move L/R based on your plan.
  • o "Drift" Whichever side you are dominant you will usually "drift" to the weaker side.
  • o "Blazing" Marking a significant navigation point. Markings like cairns, colored strips or markers.
  • o "Boxing-In" Using a combination of techniques while dialing in your navigation plan. Using handrails to keep you from drifting too far L/R. Understanding all your control measures that really do help you walk your route by keeping everything within the goal posts.
  • o "Panic Azimuth" Along the route, where can you go that supports getting things straightened out? Or, when things are getting really bad and you are in "survival" mode because you need help; which directions takes you to safety.
  • When faced with options, plan for a primary and alternate point A to B routes.
  • Check slope on your topo and recheck time permitting on GE.
  • Know the difference between Dead Reckoning and running a general azimuth. Don't get over confident.
  • Learn to ID slow-go and no-go terrain both from your map and GE
  • Recognize hazards and mitigate hazards along the route. Rock slide areas, need for technical equipment, water resupply, water crossings, obstacles points of no return or turn around points.
Last edited by lrsrngr on Thu Nov 05, 2020 1:29 am, edited 3 times in total.
[b]HUA[/b] or "Hooah!" = Heard Understood & Acknowledged. In context: "Roger that sir, HUA!"

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lrsrngr
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Re: OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass

#7

Post by lrsrngr » Mon Nov 02, 2020 11:42 pm

Putting it all together:

Scenario: I want to hike from the Keller Children's Forest up to the Keller Peak Lookout.

201105, Keller Peak Hike 03.jpg
Start war-gaming the plan to hike from the Children's Forest Center to the Keller Peak Lookout. With distance and time being the leading piece of the plan.
201105, Keller Peak Hike 03.jpg (1.4 MiB) Viewed 500 times

I get off work at 1200 today, It will take me about an hour to roll out of the driveway and according to Google Maps, travel time to the trailhead parking is 55 to 1hr 10min at 1400. Putting me at the trailhead at 1410 and on the trail at 1415.

201105, Keller Peak Hike 04.jpg
Departing the house at 1300 ARR at parking lot 1410.
201105, Keller Peak Hike 04.jpg (754.91 KiB) Viewed 500 times

It is a 1.65 mile hike at 7,500+ elevation, moderate temperature, light pack, brush and off-trail through brush possible, 1 mile/hour = 1 hour, 45 min. Time arriving at lookout, 1600. 30 minutes at top and an hour back to get back down off-trail route puts me back at the car at 1745. I check my data on the GPS to see if this is feasible:

201105, GPS Sun Moon Data.jpg
Sunset is at 1652.
201105, GPS Sun Moon Data.jpg (476.42 KiB) Viewed 500 times

Options are push my luck and walk in the dark the last part of the hike back to the car off-trail or walk the road and be back at the car at or before 1715. There is no gain in walking back on/off-trail. Decent time frame back to the car on the road and depart the parking lot at 1730 for home. Goggle map time says 1-hour travel putting me back in the driveway around 1830. Give a little slush time, put out I will be back by 2000.

201105, Keller Peak Hike 05.jpg
1-hour travel time back to Riverside.
201105, Keller Peak Hike 05.jpg (762 KiB) Viewed 500 times

Now lets start plotting points:

201105, Keller Peak Hike 06.jpg
Make sure data is in the right format.
201105, Keller Peak Hike 06.jpg (297.77 KiB) Viewed 500 times
201105, Keller Peak Hike 07.jpg
Plot points for general change in direction. The shorter the leg the easier the pace count and the less likely to be off by much.
201105, Keller Peak Hike 07.jpg (1.49 MiB) Viewed 500 times
201105, Keller Peak Route 01.jpg
Parking lot should be saved at the first waypoint and travel to PNT 1. Check azimuth to PNT 1, set compass and walk general azimuth.
201105, Keller Peak Route 01.jpg (580.34 KiB) Viewed 500 times
201105, Keller Peak Route 06.jpg
Lookout plotted as the end point.
201105, Keller Peak Route 06.jpg (586.66 KiB) Viewed 500 times
201105, Keller Peak Route 07.jpg
Put in PNT 1-6 and the end point the KP lookout. Use GPS to show general direction and set compass between each point.
201105, Keller Peak Route 07.jpg (566.57 KiB) Viewed 500 times

Having traveled up to Keller before, the road is pretty self-explanatory, even in the dark but a headlamp might be a good piece of gear to have for the trip or a flashlight. I would carry a minimum of .5 gallons but usually I have a 100 oz bladder which is almost .75 gallon. Weather will be brisk if I get bogged down and wind up being late so snivel gear might be good, gloves for the brush, long pants, head lamp, map, compass, fresh batteries, extra set, radio with APRS for tracking and calling out on Keller, cell phone... What are your questions?
Last edited by lrsrngr on Thu Nov 05, 2020 4:04 am, edited 1 time in total.
[b]HUA[/b] or "Hooah!" = Heard Understood & Acknowledged. In context: "Roger that sir, HUA!"

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KAP
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Re: OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass

#8

Post by KAP » Wed Nov 04, 2020 5:31 pm

Dave,
Please check us in.
Kevin KK6DGL
Jack KK6WXQ
John KM6FXI

Great topic!

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lrsrngr
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Location: SOCAL

Re: OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass

#9

Post by lrsrngr » Thu Nov 05, 2020 3:42 pm

Intersection / Resection / Triangulation... Once you get it, you've got it!

Scenario: You can ID points on the ground and can find them on the map but you don't know a specific location. That location could be you or it could be a distant column of smoke rising in the distance; there are unknowns and you are trying to pinpoint that location.

Information: Fire outlooks use the Osborne Firerfinder and use distance and azimuth based on features they can ID or they coordinate with another tower and use two azimuths to intersect on the map from two know points and find the location to be where the two vectors cross; "intersection" or "triangulation." https://www.fs.fed.us/eng/pubs/html/035 ... 11311.html

Osborne Firefinder 1024.jpg
The Osborne Firefinder, industrial sized navigation tool. Thank you volunteers!
Osborne Firefinder 1024.jpg (438.38 KiB) Viewed 346 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 01.jpg
Nice to have tools for making more precise lines.
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 01.jpg (404.17 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 02.jpg
Orient the map by placing the edge or index lines parallel with the compass that is pointing magnetic north and now both your compass and map are oriented and what you see on the map is what you see around you (negates the issues found with the grid-magnetic variance, also known as the "GM angle").
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 02.jpg (601.8 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 03.jpg
In this case the point on the ground cannot be IDed on the map. Mill Peak, Keller Peak and Slide Peak can be IDed in the distance and a bearing is being taken to all three. Lines will be drawn back from the known points and where they intersect is the position on the map that I have to either determine a grid for or send a vector to for someone else to plot.
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 03.jpg (748.82 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 04.jpg
Be as precise as possible. You can see how easily this can get jumbled around in your head especially if you are dealing with an emergency situation!
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 04.jpg (633.15 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 05.jpg
If we knew the distance to the peak or specific features that correspond to the first line drawn, we might get away with just one line but to be more precise, we need at least two lines.
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 05.jpg (535.38 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 06.jpg
Here we are using three prominent peaks; Mill Peak, Keller Peak and Slide Peak.
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 06.jpg (700.87 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 07.jpg
Now we have something to work from!
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 07.jpg (619.22 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 08.jpg
Here we reap the fruits of our work; the three lines intersect on the map and we can now plot the point or vector inbound service to the correct location. "Signal out can you ID" is a military phrased used when aircraft are in sight and you need them to ID they can see you signaling device. Now you are ready to bring them into your LZ/DZ. Note, I use edge of paper to mark the distance from Keller Peak to the intersection.
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 08.jpg (474.56 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 09.jpg
Here, I use the 1,000 meter grid squares to measure the distance to within 3.85 kilometers and with that I can convert to miles by dividing by 1.6 km/miles or multiply .625 miles/km.
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 09.jpg (482.18 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 10.jpg
This is what it looks like if you had someone who could plot using Google Earth.
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 10.jpg (661.31 KiB) Viewed 489 times
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 11.jpg
Here you can see why a point on the ground may not look similar to what you see on the ground and using methods like this can really help pinpoint a location on the map.
201105, Plotting Your Unkown Position 11.jpg (636.9 KiB) Viewed 489 times
Last edited by lrsrngr on Thu Nov 05, 2020 11:03 pm, edited 2 times in total.
[b]HUA[/b] or "Hooah!" = Heard Understood & Acknowledged. In context: "Roger that sir, HUA!"

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lrsrngr
Posts: 296
Joined: Thu Apr 18, 2013 8:32 pm
Call Sign: KK6CTT
Location: SOCAL

Re: OAUSA Net - November 5, 2020 - Map and Compass

#10

Post by lrsrngr » Thu Nov 05, 2020 4:24 pm

Techniques of the advanced navigator:

Dead Reckoning vs. General Azimuth

Walking a GPS heading vs. reading the map

Blending and putting it all together after years of blood, sweat and tears, literally!

Story time?

Oh yeah, the test:

201105, Terrain Features By Numbers.jpg
If we have time, we will give the test at the end.
201105, Terrain Features By Numbers.jpg (129.69 KiB) Viewed 385 times
Last edited by lrsrngr on Thu Nov 05, 2020 8:37 pm, edited 1 time in total.
[b]HUA[/b] or "Hooah!" = Heard Understood & Acknowledged. In context: "Roger that sir, HUA!"

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